# Unless, Until

Published on 2018, Mar 1

A draft RFC for adding unless and until keywords to Rust. Rejected.

• Feature Name: unless_until
• Start Date: 2018-04-02
• RFC PR: #2384
• Rust Issue: (leave this empty)

# Summary

Add unless and until as reserved keywords to the Rust language, with the option to fully implement them.

These keywords are complementary to the if and while keywords, and can be used in any context where they are permitted (standalone and as _ let).

# Motivation

Complementary logic tests are a common operation in the decision-making control constructs we use in programming. There are numerous occasions where a specific condition is tested, but may not itself be desirable to handle. Consider a condition test used in an if tree with an empty or small body, while the else body is significantly larger or more interesting to the application logic.

The common solution to this case is to invert the condition: instead of testing equality, test inequality; instead of testing set inclusion, test set exclusion; etcetera.

This is often possible (De Morgan's Law states that all Boolean arithmetic can be expressed inversely, for example) but not always ergonomic, and for some occasions in Rust, fully impossible.

The if let and while let control structures, for example, are not able to be inverted. The if let structure can have an else branch, but this still requires an empty if let body. The while let structure has no inversion at all.

For control cases where a specific case should trigger the exit of the flow, rather than the entry, it is advantageous to have a means of inverting the condition. For example: executing a loop body forever until a specific status is met, while permitting any number of non-terminal statuses to be accepted:

enum FsmState {
Start,
Continue,
Stop,
}
loop {
if let FsmState::Stop = execute_machine(); {
break;
}
//  continue looping for FsmState::Start or FsmState::Continue
}

This cannot be refactored into a while let structure, because there is no way to indicate "continue the loop while the condition is either Start or Continue," and the test while let FsmState::Stop = execute_machine() {} is fully incorrect.

Similarly, single-run control branches of if let are unpleasant to trigger negatively:

if let FsmState::Stop = execute_machine() {
//  do nothing
}
else {
//  do significant work on the positive execution
}

There are two solutions to these problems: permit use of the != operator in the test (a case the author considers to be a non-starter, as it further blurs the line between assignment and equivalence), or to use negative keywords in the syntax: if true receives unless false, and while true receives until false.

# Guide-level explanation

Rust provides the programmer with facilities to inspect the state of the world and make decisions based upon the result. The simplest and most common of these are the if and while structures, which execute a section of code once or repeatedly, according to some test.

The if COND { body } structure examines the condition COND, and if the examination reports that the condition is true, executes body. If the condition is not true, then body does not execute, and the program fast-forwards to the end of the body code.

The while COND { body } structure does the same thing as the if structure, except that it repeats itself until the condition is not true.

Suppose you want to have code that executes if the condition you're testing is not true. This is easy to accomplish with if: append an else { body } structure to it, and if the condition is false when tested, the else body executes. If the condition was true, it does not.

This is harder to accomplish with while: you must construct a condition that is the logical opposite of what you were examining, and test it instead. For example, if you used to have VALUE == variable, you must now have VALUE != variable; (VAL_A == var_a && VAL_B == var_b) becomes (VAL_A != var_a || VAL_B != var_b). Successfully inverting a Boolean test is tricky when the condition is not simple, and provides opportunities for mistakes.

The problem is compounded when you use pattern matching rather than simple equivalence checks! Suppose you are using if let or while let structures, which make decisions based not on Boolean arithmetic, but on whether Rust patterns are appropriate.

In an if let PAT = expr { body } structure, the body is executed if the test expression matches the PAT pattern. if let Some(_) = iter.next() is true when iter.next() returns Some(thing), and false when it returns None. This can be made highly specific by increasing the specificity of the pattern, but there is no way to negate the condition like there is with Boolean arithmetic!

if let PAT = expr {
true_case();
}
else {
false_case();
}

is possible, but this is not possible on while let loops.

As such, in any instance where you want to make your program act on the opposite of a test pattern, you can use the unless or until keywords.

unless COND {
cond_is_false();
}
else {
cond_is_true();
}

evaluates the conditional COND, running the first body if the test failed and the second (optional) body if the test succeeded. It is exactly equivalent to

if !COND {
cond_is_false();
}
else {
cond_is_true();
}

For loops,

until COND {
cond_is_false();
}

evaluates the conditional COND, executing the loop if the test failed and moving forward if the test succeeded. It is exactly equivalent to

while !COND {
cond_is_false();
}

For pattern-matching cases, there is no ! operator. When you want to test a condition and have the positive case be anything other than what you examine, you can write

unless let PAT = expr {
pat_does_not_match();
}
else {
pat_does_match();
}

to be equivalent to

if let PAT = expr {
pat_does_match();
}
else {
pat_does_not_match();
}

You can also write

until let PAT = expr {
pat_does_not_match();
}

to execute the loop body until the expression matches the pattern. This does not have any simple equivalent in Rust: the closest you can get is with

loop {
if let PAT = expr {
break;
}
pat_does_not_match();
}

This is not nearly as nice to write!

Generally, Rust programmers consider it good style to have the interesting part of the logic come first in an if structure, and to have the condition being tested be as specific and clear as possible.

This means that if we are testing something that is not an even 50/50 split, the narrow case (for instance, rolling a d20 and getting a 20) should be the interesting path, and the wide case (rolling a d20 and getting anything else) should be the boring path.

if 20 == d20() {
interesting();
}
else {
boring();
}

But in cases where the specific case is boring, and the general case is interesting (for example: rolling a d20 and getting a 1), then one of the two ideals breaks down. Either the condition becomes wide, or the interesting part goes last.

if 1 != d20() { // 19 of 20 matches happen here! That's very wide :(
interesting();
}
else {
boring();
}

if 1 == d20() { // 1 of 20 matches happen here! That's what we want :)
boring();   // but now the boring case comes first, and that's not :(
}
else {
interesting();
}

The unless and until keywords let us keep all our good ideas: the interesting logic is given higher placement than the boring logic, the condition being tested stays narrow and specific, and there are no convoluted incantations needed to make the test you actually want.

// if let Roll::CritMiss = roll() {
// }
// else {
//   do_a_move();
// }
unless let Roll::CritMiss = roll() {
do_a_move();
}

until let Roll::CritMiss = roll() {
play_the_game();
}

# Reference-level explanation

The technical implementation of these two keywords should be fairly straightforward. Syntactically, they are paired with if and while, and have identical rules for placement in the syntax. These keywords are essentially sugar for altering the control flow layout, and do not need to alter the condition under test, as demonstrated below:

• unless branch without else branch:

unless COND { BODY }

is equivalent to

if COND {} else { BODY }
• unless branch with else branch:

unless COND { ONE } else { TWO }

is equivalent to

if COND { TWO } else { ONE }
• until loop:

until COND { BODY }

is equivalent to

loop { if COND { break; } BODY }
• unless let branch without else branch:

unless let PAT = EXPR { BODY }

is equivalent to

if let PAT = EXPR {} else { BODY }
• unless let branch with else branch:

unless let PAT = EXPR { ONE } else { TWO }

is equivalent to

if let PAT = EXPR { TWO } else { ONE }
• until let loop:

until let PAT = EXPR { BODY }

is equivalent to

loop { if let PAT = EXPR { break; } BODY }
• match arm guard clauses:

match EXPR {
PATTERN unless CONDITION => BODY,
}

is semantically, but not necessarily mechanically, equivalent to

match EXPR {
PATTERN if CONDITION => {},
PATTERN => BODY,
}

Note that this, unlike the previous cases, is likely not representable as a simple source-to-source transform due to move semantics in match arm evaluations. It is possible to construct patterns which induce partial moves which, if the arm then fails to satisfy the guard clause, may render the subsequent unconditional pattern unusable.

This RFC makes no changes to Rust's control flow structure. It is solely a source-code-level expansion that simplifies representation of specific branch cases. This is a strict expansion of the set of possible branches representable in source code, and does not affect existing code in any way beyond the reservation of until and unless as keywords.

Rust flow-control constructs are value-producing expressions from the interior block. These keywords would not change this behavior. unless branches produce the value of the path that was executed, and until loops produce () just as while loops do.

Rust may eventually choose to have while (and thus, if accepted, until) loops evaluate to be the most recent value of the loop body; this is outside the scope of this RFC.

# Drawbacks

• These keywords were not previously reserved, and so reserving them may break existing code. This RFC would have to be implemented as weak keywords or in the next epoch.

• This expands the surface area of control flow syntax; even more ways to make branches and loops is not always ideal.

• Ambiguity or confusion in choosing between if/unless or while/until.

A 50/50 branch (such as if n % 2 == 0) should favor using the positive keywords if or while rather than the negative keywords unless or until.

The negative words may lead casual readers to form improper assumptions about control flow, inducing confusion or stutter when reading in more depth.

If this RFC is accepted, the compiler MAY choose to add a lint warning that is raised whenever an unless ! or unless { a } else { b } construct is encountered, and suggest changing them to an if or if { b } else { a }, respectively.

• Patterns cannot have interior bindings.

When an unless let or until let pattern matches, the branch governed by it is not taken. As such, any bindings in the pattern would only be accessible in blocks where they values to which they refer are not alive.

As such, the following is invalid:

unless let Err(e) = fallible() {
//  e is not in scope, because fallible() is not Err
//  the interior fields must be _
}
else {
//  e is accessible and in scope here, but it *should not be* in
//  scope, and NLL may later enforce this
}

Patterns with interior data can be formed and inspected, but they cannot bind:

unless let Counter(x @ 1 ... 5) = expr() {
//  expr() might be a Counter(x > 5), OR any other variant!
//  Thus, the Counter interior data cannot be in scope
}
else {
//  Control jumps here when Counter(x @ 1 ... 5) matches, but
//  if you need access to the x binding, you should be using
//  if let because this is now the more interesting branch
}

The guard clause can still be used, but without the binding @ prefix:

//  unnamed fields
unless let Counter(1 ... 5) = expr {}

//  named fields
struct Foo { x: i32 }
unless let Foo { x: 1 ... 5 } = expr {}

This is compatible with existing Rust, where destructuring does not bind unless an explicit @ operator is used.

let expr = Foo { x: 3 }
if let Foo { x: 1 ... 5 } = expr {
//  this branch enters, because expr.x is 3, but there is no
//  binding to x in scope
}

If interior bindings are desired, this is a strong indication that your code should be using if let or while let instead.

# Rationale and alternatives

• Why is this design the best in the space of possible designs?

Changing let bindings to have a negative operator such as != is probably way worse, since it seems Rust is explicitly trying to differentiate between "these two concepts are logically equivalent" (Eq trait, == and != operators) and "this value is shaped like that pattern" (let, match).

Another concept is to introduce a negative binding, !let, which does not appear to be as good a solution as discrete keywords, but discussion is certainly worth having. The author personally favors keywords over sigils for readability purposes.

Full pattern arithmetic (OR, AND, NOT) is discussed next.

• What other designs have been considered and what is the rationale for not choosing them?

We could expand arithmetic on pattern sets like we do on trait sets. This is something that is occasionally brought up as an idea, and does not often get significant traction.

Patterns already support expressing combination with | in match arms. Ideas get raised periodically to add && combinators to let bindings, such as let PAT_A = expr_a && PAT_B = expr_b, which if implemented would give patterns two of the three logical arithmetic operations; the last remaining operation is negation, !.

Adding full logical arithmetic to patterns would likely be worth pursuing in the long run, but is also likely to require significantly more complex work in the compiler to support, and may be more complex to teach.

RFC #2175 adds | to if let and while let constructs (which desugar to match anyway, just as unless let and until let would). That RFC is logically equivalent to this RFC, courtesy of set arithmetic — for any closed set $$F = { A, B, C }$$, the expression $$\lnot A$$ is equivalent to $$B \lor C$$. As such, the implementation of #2175 may well be grounds for rejecting this RFC.

The author belives that the prevalence of pre-existing sugar, including additional keywords, in the Rust language indicates a preference for semantically clear keywords and structures in addition to, if not in favor over, the equivalent structures with less semantic or syntactic clarity.

The until and unless keywords can, with one exception, be implemented as a desugaring pass similar to the mechanism that desugars for loops into while loops. The exception (PAT unless GUARD) is likely able to be expressed in current Rust compiler logic, but the author does not know how at this time.

• What is the impact of not doing this?

Paper cuts on a few instances that cannot be represented in current flow constructs.

# Prior art

## unless

• It is often used in raising exceptions for specific circumstances (raise alarm unless ok? is a common pattern), for better or for worse.

## until

Ruby style guides have encountered the matter before, and this issue nicely summarizes what the author believes to be an acceptable guideline for unless versus if not.

## Pattern Arithmetic

RFC #2175, discussed above.

# Unresolved questions

• What parts of the design do you expect to resolve through the RFC process before this gets merged?

Do we want two more keywords? Would it be better to have negatable patterns?

• What related issues do you consider out of scope for this RFC that could be addressed in the future independently of the solution that comes out of this RFC?

Increasingly expressive pattern syntax.