Suffix Tapping


Crate Documentation License Downloads

This crate consists of a number of traits which serve to provide convenient value-threading expressions. Essentially, the methods allow use of unchainable methods in method chains.


The Tap trait provides methods that let you inspect, or modify, a value, then pass it along.

pub trait Tap: Sized {
  fn tap<F: FnOnce(&Self) -> R, R>(self, func: F) -> Self {
  fn tap_mut<F: FnOnce(&mut Self) -> R, R>(mut self, func: F) -> Self {
    func(&mut self);
impl<T: Sized> Tap for T {}

This means that any expression can have a tap or tap_mut call appended to it in order to run a borrowing function on the value of the expression. The value is taken and then returned, so the tapping call does not cause any change in the type of the expression at that point.

Because the tapping methods return the receiver, they can also be prepended to any method call or other expression that expected the expression in front of the call.

Rust’s set of ownership and mutability rules also mean that values can change mutability at each binding site, such as in the argument position of a function. This allows tap_mut to be called on expressions that are otherwise bound immutably.

Taps are adaptors between value-threading expressions (take and return self) and borrowing methods. This allows API authors to write borrowing methods without needing to consider or explicitly favor any specific styles of value manipulation, and allows users to modify expressions for logging or modification without needing to change anything about the neighboring code.


use tap::Tap;

let v: Vec<i32> = vec![5, 1, 4, 2, 3]
  .tap_mut(|v| v.sort())
  .tap(|v| println!("Vector: {:?}", v))
  .tap_mut(|v| v.reverse())
  .tap(|v| println!("Vector: {:?}", v));

This creates an immutable binding to a sorted, reversed, vector, and prints the contents after the sort and after the reverse.

This removed the need to bind mutably, modify, and rebind immutably. The method chain is also one single expression, so using the taps makes it possible to modify an expression without creating statements and potentially requiring a block to wrap the whole structure.

In addition to these taps, the crate also provides debug-only equivalents. Add the suffix _dbg to any tap call in order to only run the tap in debug builds, and remove it entirely from release.

For convenience, the crate also provides traits that are aware of the Option and Result carrier types, and act on the interior values they contain. The TapOption trait provides tap_some, tap_some_mut, and tap_none that run only when the carrier is of the correct variant, and operate on the inner value (if present). The TapResult trait provides tap_ok, tap_err, and the _mut alternates, that run on the inner value or error only if the carrier is the denoted variant.

These traits provide the _dbg-suffixed alternates as well.

In conclusion, tap is a powerful crate that greatly enhances the experience of writing Rust, by providing a bridge between holding a value and running methods on references to it.


The Pipe trait is equivalent to Tap, except it allows you to change the type of the received value. Where Tap methods ignore what your tapped function returns and instead return the input value, Pipe methods return the output of your function:

pub trait Pipe: Sized {
  fn pipe<F: FnOnce(Self) -> R, R>(self, func: F) -> R {
impl<T: Sized> Pipe for T {}

This allows you to place functions that are not eligible for method dot-call syntax in suffix position.


tap also provides a companion trait to [From] that allows you to call the conversion method in the middle of an expression.

This code does not compile:

let s: String = "static".into().clone();

Even though Clone has the signature fn clone(&self) -> Self, and the output type of the .clone() call is known, the compiler’s type resolver is incapable of finding a unique solution for Into<T>. This problem is amplified in non-trivial expressions.

The Conv trait permits that expression to compile:

let s = "static".conv::<String>().clone();

What Is It

The entire module is this code:

pub trait Conv: Sized {
  fn conv<T: Sized + From<Self>>(self) -> T {
    <T as From<Self>>::from(self)
impl<T: Sized> Conv for T {}

That’s it. It is equivalent in simplicity to the Into definition:

pub trait Into<T: Sized>: Sized {
  fn into(self) -> T;
impl<T: Sized, U: Sized + From<T>> Into<U> for T {
  fn into(self) -> U {
    <U as From<T>>::from(self)

How To Use It

  1. Import the trait:

    use tap::Conv;
  2. Write impl From<Source> for Destination {} blocks.

  3. Call .conv::<Destination>() on Source values!

When Is It Useful

Conv is the only conversion trait that can be called as a method in non-trailing position in an expression.

When Is It Not Useful

Conv cannot be used as a trait bound. T: Into<U> is the correct trait bound for calling single conversions generically.

Generic Usage

The trait bound T: From<U> allows calling .conv::<T>() on instances of U.